Ecce Romani 2 Verb Principal Parts Charts
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Semideponent verbs--as their name suggests--are deponent but only partially so. In the present system of tenses (present/imperfect/future) they are regular active verbs. BUT in the perfect system of tenses (perfect/pluperfect/future perfect) they become deponent: passive in form but active in meaning. Such perfects are formed as always with the participle + a form of sum. Only eight verbs need concern us here. NOTE: The verbs libet, licet, placeō, and taedet may be used as semideponents in the perfect system, but need not be.
1st Principal Part 2nd Principal Part 3rd Principal Part Conjugation # / Meaning
audeō audēre ausus sum 2nd / dare
cōnfīdō cōnfīdere cōnfīsus sum 3rd / trust + DAT.
gaudeō gaudēre gāvīsus sum 2nd / rejoice/be glad
libet libēre libuit / libitum est (may be semideponent) 2nd / it is pleasing + DAT. (impersonal)
licet licēre licuit / licitum est (may be semideponent) 2nd / it is allowed (impersonal)
placeō placēre placuī / placitus sum (may be semideponent) 2nd / to please + DAT.
soleō solēre solitus sum 2nd / be accustomed to/be in the habit of + infinitive
taedet taedēre taeduit/taesum est (may be semideponent) 2nd / it bores/makes tired (impersonal)
Sample Deponent Verb with Translations
Note: the perfect system includes a participle; it is necessary to make the participle agree with the subject.
Perfect of gaudeō (There will obviously be no neuter participle for this verb because only people can be glad.)
gāvīsus/gāvīsa sum I (have) rejoiced
gāvīsus/gāvīsa es you (have) rejoiced
gāvīsus/gāvīsa est he/she (has) rejoiced
gāvīsī/gāvīsae sumus we (have) rejoiced
gāvīsī/gāvīsae estis you (all have) rejoiced
gāvīsī/gāvīsae sunt they (have) rejoiced
ATTENTION, VISITORS: This list contains principal parts of those verbs new in Ecce Romani II, but not those introduced in Ecce Romani I. For those verbs, see the table found at ( parts.html). This table includes forms found in various Latin dictionaries but not in Ecce Romani II. This is based on Mr. A's views on Latin principal parts. Forms as listed in the book are indicated in the footnotes at the bottom. Ask your teacher about the 4th principal parts given here. NOTE: Deponents and semideponents have their own tables.
Principal Part Sample Form and Identification Translation
1st Principal Part dīcō (1st person singular present active indicative) I say / am saying / do say
2nd Principal Part dīcere (present active infinitive) to say
3rd Principal Part dīxī (1st person singular perfect active indicative) I said / did say / have said
4th Principal Part dictus (perfect passive participle) having been said
Memorize the irregular 1st Conjugation forms indicated by all capital letters.
adoptō adoptāre adoptāvī adoptātus
adstō1 adstāre adstitī none
aegrōtō aegrōtāre aegrōtāvī aegrōtātus2
aptō aptāre aptāvī aptātus
castigō castigāre castigāvī castigātus
commemorō commemorāre commemorāvī commemorātus
comparō comparāre comparāvī comparātus
condemnō condemnāre condemnāvī condemnātus
concursō concursāre concursāvī concursātus
cōnsecrō cōnsecrāre cōnsecrāvī cōnsecrātus
cōnstat special impersonal use of cōnstō4
creō creāre creāvī creātus
dēdicō dēdicāre dēdicāvī dēdicātus
dēlectō dēlectāre dēlectāvī dēlectātus
dōnō dōnāre dōnāvī dōnātus
dormitō dormitāre dormitāvī -------
ēnuntiō ēnuntiāre ēnuntiāvī ēnuntiātus
excūsō excūsāre excusāvī excusātus
iactō iactāre iactāvī iactāvī
ignōrō ignōrāre ignōrāvī ignōrātus
imperō imperāre imperāvī imperātus
interrogō interrogāre interrogāvī interrogātus
invītō invītāre invītāvī invītātus
invocō invocāre invocāvī invocātus
iugulō iugolāre iugolāvī iugolātus
līberō līberāre līberāvī līberātus
ligō ligāre ligāvī ligātus
locō locāre locāvī locātus
migrō migrāre migrāvī migrātus5
natō natāre natāvī natātus6
nōminō nōmināre nōmināvī nōminātus
numerō numerāre numerāvī numerātus
obscūrō obscūrāre obscūrāvī obscūrātus
obsecrō obsecrāre obsecrāvī obsecrātus
obsignō obsignāre obsignāvī obsignātus
onerō onerāre onerāvī onerātus
optō optāre optāvī optātus
ornō ornāre ornāvī ornātus
ōrō ōrāre ōrāvī ōrātus
plōrō plōrāre plōrāvī plōrātus
pugnō pugnāre pugnāvī pugnātus
putō putāre putāvī putātus
recitō recitāre recitāvī recitātus
renovō renovāre renovāvī renovātus
reservō reservāre reservāvī reservātus
sacrificō sacrificāre sacrificāvī sacrificātus
spērō spērāre spērāvī spērātus
superō superāre superāvī superātus
ululō ululāre ululāvī ululātus
violō violāre violāvī violātus
vulnerō vulnerāre vulnerāvī vulnerātus
ārdeō ārdēre ārsī ārsus7
audeō audēre ausus sum8 semideponent
careō carēre caruī caritus9
commoveō commovēre commōvī commōtus
compleō complēre complēvī complētus
contineō continēre continūi contentus
decet decēre decuit -------; used impersonally
dēleō dēlēre dēlēvī dēlētus
dērīdeō dērīdēre dērīsī dērīsus
dēspondeō dēspondēre dēspondī dēspōnsus
doleō dolēre doluī none
exerceō exercēre exercuī exercitus
fleō flēre flēvī flētus
langueō languēre ------- -------
lateō latēre latuī -------
libet libēre libuit / libitum est8 + dative; used impersonally
licet licēre licuit / licitum est8, 10 + dative; used impersonally
misceō miscēre miscuī mixtus
obsideō obsidēre obsēdī obsessus
oportet oportēre oportuit -------; used impersonally
pāreō pārēre pāruī pāritus11 + dative
persuādeō persuādēre persuāsī persuāsus
placeō placēre placuī / placitus sum8,10 placitus + dative3
praebeō praebēre praebuī praebitus
retineō retinēre retinuī retentus
spondeō spondēre spopondī spōnsus
studeō studēre studuī ------- + dative
tergeō tergēre tersī tersus
urgeō urgēre ursī -------
valeō valēre valuī valitus3
accendō accendere accendī accēnsus
accumbō accumbere accubuī accubitus3
accurrō accurrere accurrī / accucurrī10 accursus13
addō addere addidī additus
addūcō addūcere addūxī adductus
adimō adimere adēmī adēmptus
animadvertō animadvertere animadverti animadversus
arcessō arcessere arcessīvī arcessītus
aspergō aspergere aspersī aspersus
āvertō āvertere āvertī āversus
bibō bibere bibī -------
canō canere cecinī cantus
cognōscō cognōscere cognōvī cognitus
cōgō cōgere coēgī coāctus
committō committere commīsī commissus
compōnō compōnere composuī compositus
concinō concinere concinuī -------
concurrō concurrere concurrī / concucurrī10 concursus14
cōnsistō cōnsistere cōnstitī cōnstitus
conticēscō conticēscere conticuī -------
convalēscō convalēscere convaluī -------
convertō convertere convertī conversus
crēdō crēdere crēdidī crēditus
dēcēdō dēcēdere dēcessī dēcessus15
dēdūcō dēdūcēre dēdūxī dēductus
dēmittō dēmittere dēmīsī dēmissus
dēpōnō dēpōnere dēposuī dēpositus
dēsinō dēsinere dēsiī dēsitus
dīligō dīligere dīlēxī dīlēctus
dīmittō dīmittere dīmīsī dīmissus
discō discere didicī -------16
dīvidō dīvidere dīvīsī dīvīsus
ēdūcō ēdūcere ēdūxī ēductus
effundō effundere effūdī effūsus
ēmittō ēmittere ēmīsī ēmissus
ēruō ēruere ēruī ērutus
ēvādō ēvādere ēvāsī ēvāsus
ēvertō ēvertere ēvertī ēversus
excēdō excēdere excessī excessus17
eximō eximere exēmī exēmptus
expellō expellere expulī expulsus
exprimō exprimere expressī expressus
exstinguō exstinguere exstīnxī exstīnctus
exstruō exstruere exstrūxī exstrūctus
exuō exuere exuī exūtus
frangō frangere frēgī frāctus
immittō immittere immīsī immissus
impōnō impōnere imposuī impositus
incēdō incēdere incessī incessus18
incendō incendere incendī incēnsus
incidō incidere incidī incāsus19
incurrō incurrere incurrī / incucurrī10 incursus20
ingravēscō ingravēscere ------- -------
īnscrībō īnscrībere īnscrīpsī īnscrīptus
intellegō intellegere intellēxī intellēctus
intrōdūcō intrōdūcere intrōdūxī intrōductus
irrumpō irrumpere irrūpī irruptus
iungō iungere iūnxī iūnctus
laedō laedere laesī laesus
lambō lambere lambī / lambuī10 lambitus3
linquō linquere līquī -------21
minuō minuere minuī minūtus
neglegō neglegere neglēxī neglēctus
nūbō nūbere nūpsī22 nūptus23
occīdō occīdere occīdī occīsus
omittō omittere omīsī omissus
opprimō opprimere oppressī oppressus
ostendō ostendere ostendī ostentus
parcō parcere pepercī parsus
pāscō pāscere pāvī pāstus
pectō pectere pexī pexus
perdō perdere perdidī perditus
perlegō perlegere perlēgī perlēctus
plangō plangere plānxī plānctus
poscō poscere poposcī -------
praecēdō praecēdere praecessī praecessus
prehendō prehendere prehendī prehēnsus
prōcēdō prōcēdere prōcessī prōcessus
prōpōnō prōpōnere prōposuī prōpositus
prōrumpō prōrumpere prōrūpī prōruptus
quaerō quaerere quaesīvī quaesītus
recumbō recumbere recubuī -------
reddō reddere reddidī redditus
redūcō redūcere redūxī reductus
repetō repetere repetīvī repetītus
requīrō requīrere requīsīvī requīsītus
rescrībō rescrībere rescrīpsī rescrīptus
resistō resistere restitī ------- + dative
rumpō rumpere rūpī ruptus
scindō scindere scidī scissus
solvō solvere solvī solūtus
tango tangere tetigī tāctus
tegō tegere texui textus
tollō tollere sustulī sublātus
unguō unguere ūnxī ūnctus
valedīcō valedīcere valedīxī -------24
vehō vehere vexī vectus
vēndō vēndere vēndidī vēnditus
vīvō vīvere vīxī vīctus25
abripiō abripere abripuī abreptus
accipiō accipere accēpī acceptus
afficiō afficere affēcī affectus
aufugiō aufugere aufūgī -------
circumspiciō circumspicere circumspexī circumspectus
cōnfugiō cōnfugere cōnfūgī -------
corripiō corripere corripuī correptus
cupiō cupere cupīvī cupītus
dēiciō dēicere dēiēcī dēiectus
ēiciō ēicere ēiēcī ēiectus
ēripiō ēripere ēripuī ēreptus
incipiō incipere incēpī inceptus
iniciō inicere iniēcī inectus
īnspiciō īnspicere īnspexī īnspectus
percutiō percutere percussī percussus
rapiō rapere rapuī raptus
recipiō recipere recēpī receptus
reficiō reficere refēcī refectus
surripio surripere surripuī surreptus
conveniō convenīre convēnī conventus26
dēsiliō dēsilīre dēsiluī -------
exsiliō exilīre exsiluī -------
grunniō grunnīre gruniī / grunīvī27 grunītus3
hauriō haurīre hausīvī haustus
sentiō sentīre sēnsī sēnsus
sepeliō sepelīre sepelīvī sepultus
serviō servīre servīvī29 /serviī servītus29
afferō afferre adtulī allātus
auferō auferre abstulī ablātus
efferō efferre extulī ēlātus
ineō inīre iniī / inīvī initus
īnferō īnferre intulī illātus
introeō introīre introiī / introīvī introitus
mālō mālle māluī -------
perferō perferre pertulī perlātus
praeferō praeferre praetulī praelātus
prōdeō prōdīre prōdiī prōditus30
prōferō prōferre prōtulī prōlātus
referō referre retulī relātus
1adstō sometimes spelled astō
2aegrōtātus 4th form in text: future active participle aegrōtātūrus
3accubitus, concrepitus, cōnstitus, grunītus, lambitus, placitus 4th form not in book
4cōnstat principal parts: cōnstō, cōnstāre, cōnstetī, cōnstātus
5migrātus 4th form in text: future active participle migrātūrus
6natātus 4th form in text: future active participle natātūrus
7ārsus 4th form in text: future active participle ārsūrus
8ausus sum, libitum est, licitum est, placitus sum See Semideponent Table.
9caritus 4th form in text: future active participle caritūrus
10accurrī/accucurrī, concurrī/concucurrī, incurrī/incucurrī, lambī/lambuī, licuit/licitum est, placuī/placitus sum 2nd form not in book
11pāritus 4th form in text: future active participle pāritūrus
12valitus 4th form in text: future active participle valitūrus
13accursus 4th form in text: future active participle accursūrus
14concursus 4th form in text: future active participle concursūrus
15dēcessus 4th form in text: future active participle dēcessūrus
16no 4th part of discō There is a future active participle discitūrus not in the book.
17excessus 4th form in text: future active participle excessūrus
18incessus not in book, but 3 entries down is the 4th decl. noun incessus, which comes from this participle.
19incāsus 4th form in text: future active participle incāsūrus
20incursus 4th form in text: future active participle incursūrus
21no 4th form of linquō There is a possible form lictus.
22nūpsī There is also the possible feminine form nūpta sum.
23nūptus 4th form in text: future active participle nūptūrus
24no 4th form of valedīcō 4th form in text: future active participle valedictūrus
25vīctus 4th form in text: future active participle vīctūrus
26conventus 4th form in text: future active participle conventūrus
27gruniī / grunīvī Neither form appears in the text.
28serviī / servīvī The 1st form is not in the text.
29servītus 4th form in text: future active participle servītūrus
30prōditus 4th form in text: future active participle prōditūrus
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This page was last updated on May 25, 2021
NOTE: Deponent verbs are active in form but passive in meaning. They have three principal parts. The third principal part consists of a participle + a form of sum. In the table that follows you will see the masculine singular form of the participle. In other circumstances the participle might be feminine or neuter or plural.
Principal Part Sample Form Identification Translation
1st Principal Part proficīscor (1st person singular present active indicative) I set out
2nd Principal Part proficīscī (present active infinitive) to set out
3rd Principal Part profectus sum (1st person singular perfect active indicative) I have set out
admīror admīrārī admīrātus sum marvel at
comitor comitārī comitātus sum accompany
cōnor cōnārī cōnātus sum try
cōnspicor cōnspicārī cōnspicātus sum catch sight of
grātulor + dative grātulārī grātulātus sum congratulate
hortor hortārī hortātus sum encourage, urge on
luctor luctārī luctātus sum wrestle
mīror mīrārī mīrātus sum wonder, admire
moror morārī morātus sum delay
precor precārī precātus sum pray
rixor rixārī rixātus sum quarrel
suspicor supicārī suspicātus sum suspect
polliceor pollicērī pollicitus sum promise
vereor verērī veritus sum fear
adipīscor adipīscī adeptus sum obtain
alloquor alloquī allocūtus sum speak to, address
amplector amplectī amplexus sum embrace
collābor collābī collāpsus sum collapse
colloquor colloquī collocūtus sum converse, speak together
cōnsequor consequī consecūtus sum pursue
expigīscor expigīscī experrēctus sum wake up
lābor lābī lāpsus sum slip, glide
loquor loquī locūtus sum speak
nāscor nāscī nātus sum be born
persequor persequī persecūtus sum pursue
proficīscor proficīscī profectus sum set out
sequor sequī secūtus sum follow
subsequor subsequī subsecūtus sum follow (up)
ulcīscor ulcīscī ultus sum avenge
ūtor ūtī ūsus sum use + ablative
vescor + abl. vescī ------- eat
aggredior aggredī aggressus sum approach, attack
congredior congredī congressus sum come together
ēgredior ēgredī ēgressus sum go out
ingredior ingredī ingressus sum enter
morior morī mortuus sum die
prōgredior prōgredī prōgressus sum advance
regredior regredī regressus sum go back, return
trānsgredior trānsgredī trānsgressus sum cross
adorior adorīrī adortus sum attack
coorior coorīrī coortus sum arise
experior experīrī expertus sum test / prove
ōrdior ōrdīrī orsus sum begin
orior orīrī ortus sum rise